If you are putting in a serious amount of effort with your training and nutrition, you owe it to yourself to take the ten extra minutes each week to track your progress seriously. This will help ensure you get the results you deserve.

I’d go as far as to say it’s the biggest differentiator between those that are successful and those that aren’t.


Because without proper tracking data, you won’t be able to gauge whether or not you are progressing as hoped. You won’t have objective data points from which to base your decisions off of when you stall in some area, and there is a good chance that you will get stuck spinning your wheels not knowing what to tweak to get yourself back on track.

Perhaps you’ve already experienced this frustration?

Consider the following:

  • A lack of weight change does not necessarily mean that body fat hasn’t been lost.
  • A weight increase doesn’t necessarily mean that body fat has been gained.
  • Weight gain when bulking won’t be from muscle alone.
  • A lack of training progress doesn’t necessarily mean that a training plan is to blame.
  • Body fat measurement methods all have accuracy issues, so they can’t be relied upon to gauge progress in the short term.

If the way you’re currently tracking isn’t sufficient to tease out the differences, then you need to improve it. Fortunately, this article is here to help. It will guide you through the art of proper progress tracking that I’ve developed over the last six and a half years from working with clients online. It is easy to understand, quick to implement, and I’ve included a spreadsheet tracker you can download also.

The tracking mistakes most people make:

1. Are you weighing yourself just once per week? Don’t do that. Your weight will fluctuate from day to day, and across the course of a day.

2. Do you try to gauge progress by how you look in the mirror? Bad idea. The brain plays tricks on us by adapting perceptions to new levels of stimulation through a phenomenon known as “perceptual adaptation.” Oh and how defined you look condition will change from day to day your water balance and gut content fluctuate.

3. Are you trying to measure your body fat percentage? Well, that’s another seemingly great, but really bad idea. Body fat measurement methods all have accuracy and consistency issues. (I’ve written more about this here.)

Over longer time frames, this is sufficient. In the shorter time frames where all the decisions need to happen, this is woefully inadequate, and will more than likely just leave you in the shit.

The 8 Ways I Get Clients to Track Progress

There are eight key ways I now get clients to track progress. The data points taken together will help you determine whether an adjustment to your diet or training is necessary. It’s not perfect, but it will help you navigate the fluctuations in weight when dieting and bulking, help you determine whether you need to make an adjustment to your training, and stop you from doing something prematurely, screwing yourself up.

This is how your data will look if you track as per this guide:

Many of the points I will make here may seem very obvious in isolation, but they are things easily missed or forgotten when making decisions in the heat of the moment.

For more useful graphics, check out my Instagram.

1. Weigh yourself every morning upon waking. Note the weekly average.

Do it after going to the toilet. You can choose to do this at night, but most people will find a morning habit easier to stay consistent with.


Scale weight will fluctuate day to day, and throughout each day. You can expect to lose 1-2% body weight overnight through the moisture lost when breathing. Here are other things that cause fluctuations in weight:

  • Water & glycogen, due to a change in carb intake.
  • Water, due to the stall-whoosh effect.
  • Water, due to hydration status.
  • Water, due to a change in salt intake.
  • Water, due to stress or the menstrual cycle.
  • Bowel content, because some foods have a higher ‘gut residue’ (they stay in the gut for longer).

Scale Weight Obsessors – Weighing once a week is not ideal by any means as it leaves you as a coach open to random fluctuations in weight happening and screwing up your analysis.

The downside of this needs to be weighed up with the stress from daily weighing that certain personality types feel. Educating the client on the causes of weight fluctuations is a cure in most cases, but not all. Perhaps showing several data client sets with the daily weigh-ins and the trend line noted would help.

2. Take circumference measurements in nine places, once per week, noting the measurements to the nearest 0.1 cm.

9 key measurements spots on the body

As with the scale weight, I suggest you measure in the morning when you wake up, after going to the toilet. I get clients to do this on a Saturday. Do it yourself rather than relying on a partner, as you are the only person that will always be with you. Two different people measuring with the same tape will get a slightly different result.

To help with consistency:

  • Consider getting a Myotape/Orbitape (pictured below) as it will make self-measuring easier.
  • Tense your muscles.
  • Use the widest part of your legs.
  • Measure at the nipple-line for the chest, being sure to not get the tape at an angle or twisted behind your back.
  • Curl your biceps in a pose like Arnold to take your arms at the widest point.
  • To gauge 2 inches above and below the navel, just use three finger widths.

You can find a picture and video guide to using this kind of tape here.


When used in combination with the scale weight, this will help you to gauge muscle growth and fat loss in different areas.

Accept nothing less than a 0.1 cm degree of accuracy, regardless of what system (metric or imperial) they are used to. Not only is it exceptionally useful for noting small changes and trends in the data, but it also sets the client up with a mindset on precision, and that they need to take the data seriously.

Without the data, you are blind after all. I hammer this point home to clients at the outset – no data, no assessment. People sometimes screw this up, so it’s worth checking that they have filled out the tracking sheet correctly in the first week so that there can be no misunderstandings at the time of the first update.

3. Take two photos, front and side, once every four weeks.

Use the same lighting conditions, camera, camera angle, time of day, and pose.


Being able to see changes in definition month to month can be very useful for motivation. I’ve experimented with weekly and fortnightly photos with clients and I’m convinced that every four weeks is best as the changes are often too small to be noticeable at higher frequencies.

Competitors should consider adding a third picture from the back, as this can show major changes in lower back and hip+ass fat which the front and side photos will not towards the end of the diet.

Due to the subjective nature of photos, I prefer relying on data for decision-making purposes. There are three exceptions that come to mind. Firstly, when making a guess at initial body fat. Secondly, gauging whether a competitor is lean enough for competition or whether or not we are on, ahead of, or behind schedule. Thirdly, helping people turn things around into maintenance, and then a bulk, without unnecessary fat gain.

If someone comes to you with an initial set of photos where they have their stomach forcibly sticking out, get them retaken. Varying degrees of stomach flexion will lead to a dramatically different appearance from one minute to the next. Remind them that the goal with the photos is not to have the most striking before-after shots, but to have a reliable visual gauge of progress.

4. Track subjective feelings of sleep quality, stress levels, hunger, and fatigue, each week.

Rate all of these on a 0-5 scale.

  • Sleep issues? (0 = no issues, high-quality sleep. 5 = insomnia.)
  • Stress levels (0 = no stress, 5 = divorce or a death in the family.)
  • Hunger issues? (0 = no issues, 5 = extreme hunger.)
  • Fatigue/lethargy? (0 = no issues, 5 = exceptionally fatigued.)

Everything affects everything:

  • Sleep quality will affect training performance as well as recovery, and muscle retention when in a calorie deficit. Sleep quality affects hunger and energy levels. So, if you are hungry, your training has been shitty recently, or you’ve been feeling lethargic but you see that your sleep quality had been poor, sleep duration or quality is likely the cause and cure.
  • Stress will negatively impact training performance as well as recovery and can cause water retention. Stress can also affect sleep. So, if your weight hasn’t been coming down in the last few weeks, but your stress levels are exceptionally high, then water retention masking fat losses may be to blame.
  • Chronic hunger can be a sign that the caloric deficit may be too high and needs to be raised. However, high stress levels or poor food choices can sometimes cause this. So, if you are hungry and stressed, the one may be causing the other and you need to work on the root cause of the stress.
  • Energy levels affect workout performance and muscle mass retention (or growth). If energy levels are low it could be a sign that you need to raise caloric intake. However, it could also be due to poor sleep or high stress, so consider these things before making an increase.

5. Rate your diet adherence as a percentage of the number of days you adhered to your calorie or macro targets each week.

For those that are new to tracking their food intake, I suggest you aim to hit your daily protein intake target to within 20g, and hit your calorie target to within 200kcal.

More experienced trainees will benefit from a higher standard of accuracy. This is what I usually use with my clients. Aim for “best” 75% of the time and the other days can be “better” or “good” targets:

  • Good: Hit your calorie target to within 100kcal.
  • Better: Hit your protein target to within a 10g, and your calorie goal to within 100kcal.
  • Best: Hit your protein and carb targets to within 10g, fat to within 5g.

Those toward the end of a contest prep will benefit from tighter targets. Those in a bulking phase should consider looser targets.


Perfection is not a reasonable or realistic target to aim for, it will just set you up for failure. You need to choose an accuracy target that is both appropriate for your experience level and current situation. It’s important to build flexibility into the system to make things sustainable or your life will revolve around your diet.

When bulking you can (and arguably should) have looser accuracy targets than when you are cutting. Life needs to be lived, you cannot be on point all of the time or you will burn out.

Some people are going to screw up their counting of things. Short of requesting a complete list of the client’s meals and their ingredients (which I think may be overbearing, and possibly counterproductive), there is no real way to check for this, you just have to be aware of it. So, if someone isn’t losing weight as it seems they should for the macros you’ve given them, miscounting may be a factor.

6. Rate your training adherence as a percentage of the number of workouts completed each week.

This figure is not how well you thought you performed. Fluctuations in performance are normal and to be expected.


If you haven’t been sticking to your training plan then you can’t expect to progress with it. However, without the data staring you in the face it’s sometimes easy to miss the fact that you haven’t been faithfully following the program well enough to gauge the efficacy. If this number is consistently below 80% (meaning you’re missing one in five workouts) then you need to re-prioritize your schedule or adjust the number of days in your training plan (while making an effort to keep training volume the same) so that you can stick to it.

7. Keep summary notes on your key lifts.

List each of your main compound lifts. Every two weeks, write one of the following three things to summarize the period:

  • ‘Progressing, recovered.’
  • ‘Not progressing, recovered.’
  • ‘Not progressing, not recovered.’

‘Not recovered’ in this sense means you are unusually sore when you next hit that body part, or if after your warm up the weights feel heavier than usual for that exercise. This shouldn’t be considered good or bad, so don’t attach a meaning to it.


It is normal for strength to fluctuate as fatigue builds and dissipates across the training cycle, and as work-life stresses come and go. Keeping summary data like this separate from the full training log helps to avoid clutter, and helps you get the relevant ‘big picture’ details without being overwhelmed when making decisions.

If you see that you aren’t progressing as reasonably expected in certain areas, or are unusually sore, despite sleep, stress and adherence all being on point for a couple of consecutive periods, then you know you need to take a deload, tweak something in your training program, or perhaps raise your caloric intake.

8. Keep a detailed training log.

Either in a notebook or a separate tab of your tracking spreadsheet, keep a full training log noting all sets and reps completed along with the weight used for all exercises. Avoid clutter, don’t note warm-up sets.

This is how I get clients to note things:

Training Data Log Sample - PL Novice

If you have a copy of The Muscle and Strength Training Pyramid, you’ll see that this is a version of the novice powerlifting sample program on page 153.
If you’re not familiar with the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) notation, it is a method to help match the load used each day to your readiness. This will help you manage fatigue more effectively and make faster gains. Eric Helms and I have put a free email course together explaining how to implement it here.


1. This allows you to dig into the details of your program when you have determined that you need to make a change. Putting it on a separate spreadsheet keeps the main summary data from getting cluttered.

2. It allows you to focus. You need a record of what you lifted the week before so that you can choose what you lift this week. I keep a screenshot of my training program on my phone. I put the phone on airplane mode. This serves the dual function of making sure I’m not disturbed when lifting something heavy and keeping me away from social media distractions.

You can download a copy of the progress tracker spreadsheet immediately for free, here.

(Check your browser’s downloads folder after clicking.)

For more useful graphics, check out my Instagram.

How to Interpret Your Tracking Data

With the client work I’ve gotten pretty good at assessing whether changes are needed. I’ve written a whole book on this subject. The following points should be enough to get you going.

The importance of patience

Gauge progress by looking at data over a four week period. Analyze the trend, not the fluctuations day to day or week to week. Yes, this means you’ll have to wait for four weeks after setting things up. It’s during this time that people typically experience the most fluctuations.

You’re looking for minimum confirmation that you’re progressing, not any single point in the data that suggests you aren’t.

Interpreting measurement data

  1. When around 15% body fat or lower, fat comes off the upper abs first, so you’ll see the mid and upper stomach measurements drop before the lower ones. When bulking the reverse will happen.
  2. Don’t forget that you store fat on your chest and back, legs and arms. So, if these measurements decrease when you are cutting, it doesn’t necessarily indicate muscle loss.
  3. Conversely, all your measurements increase when bulking. Unfortunately, this will not all be muscle gain, there will be some fat. More details concerning this in my bulking guide.
  4. If your weight is slowly increasing and your stomach measurements slowly decreasing, this indicates simultaneous fat loss and muscle gain. Muscle growth will hide fat loss so don’t just rely on the scale. Think very carefully before changing anything as this is the domain of novice trainees and won’t last forever.
  5. If your weight suddenly increases (which it will on occasion), don’t panic, this will not be fat gain. Check your stomach measurements – you will likely notice little change. This will be due to an increase in glycogen, perhaps from some extra carb intake or saltier food intake. The reason this does not show in the stomach measurements is because these changes happen throughout the whole body (mostly the muscle tissue) rather than under the skin.
  6. Ladies, your weight will fluctuate with your menstrual cycle due to water retention. Only compare data points at the same time point in your cycle.
  7. An increase in neck girth is probably a good indicator of lean mass gain as not much body fat is stored there. This is used in military body fat estimation methods. Consider taking this when bulking. The changes will be slow, so only compare over long time intervals.

Interpreting strength data

  1. Strength maintenance is a good sign of muscle maintenance as long as the training volume isn’t drastically different.
  2. However, the leaner you get, the less mechanically efficient you’ll be at many lifts. (This is most easily pictured with the bench press, as the bar has to travel further as fat is lost on the chest and back.) Thus, for experienced trainees, drops in strength for the same total training volume should probably be expected when getting very lean. (For more details see: What is Realistic Progress While Cutting?)
  3. Experienced trainees using a form of periodization (non-linear progression) can assess strength changes with periodical AMRAP (do as many reps as possible for a fixed weight) or 1-rep max (1RM) testing with your main compound lifts. If you’re a powerlifter, 1RM testing makes sense. For all others, the AMRAP is a safer and less fatiguing option. Just choose a weight you could only get x reps with y weeks prior, and see if you can get any more reps. For example, if you could get 5 reps of 200lbs 6 weeks ago, but you can get 8 reps at 200lbs now, that’s progress. If you’d like to get an estimate of how that would carry over to a 1RM, use this tool I’ve added to our Muscle and Strength Pyramid books site.

Warning: More data is not always better

Looking at data is something I do half of my working week. How I get clients to present it to me is something I have thought very long and hard about. Think carefully before adding other data as it can overwhelm you with detail.

That said, the one additional item I would suggest you track is motivation, rated weekly on a scale of 1-10. This is something I have clients write in their email updates along with any questions or concerns because I want them to explain the reason they feel this way. Also, as a coach the text dialogue at the update points can provide invaluable insights.


Thank you for reading. This article is an excerpt from my book on diet adjustments, The Last Shred.

Thanks for reading, questions welcomed in the comments! – Andy

Top image credit, Brandon Wells photography.


Please keep questions on topic, write clearly, concisely, and don't post diet calculations.


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Hi Andy, great post. Is it possible to create a PDF of it to read offline?


Thanks for letting me know. I’ll check it out.


Just click the three little lines to the left of the URL in the address bar (Safari) to go into Reader View. Then File-Print-Print to PDF. Gotta love a Mac!


Hi Andy,
First thank you about yours writtings.
Second sorry about my broken english.

So, I m gonna start your diet plan and i m struggling to match the calories, fat, carbs and protein intake. Do you have any tips to match all the macros to prepare my meals?



Hi Andy,
my Gym offers a monthly check with an Inbody 770 System. They say it’s precise in measuring lean muscle tissue and bodyfat near 99%. I’m used to track my calories and macros daily, also my training and bodyweight. Would You recommend the InBody test as trustworthy or does it have its complications as other methods?


4-point, heels and thumbs. I had two previuos tests with 4 training weeks in between, in which I raised my macros and calories for a lean bulk. The machine says that I gained 700g of bodyweight, 900g of fat. Lost lean muscle, it says. But on the contrary I feel personally much stronger, have gains in numbers of repetitions or maximum load. The InBody numbers made no sense to me, so I decided to follow my path further on and track my numbers the old school way, with daily scale and once a week with caliper and tape measuring. I know it’s not precise, but it’s always me who does the measurements, so I have at least some reference data to compare. Thank You for Your inspiring work!


My experience having a 4 point BIA scale at home (Omron): Not only do you need consistent context for measuring (in the morning, after bathroom, no food or water intake), but also resistance training in the days prior. After 2 days of no resistance training my body fat “jumps” from 14% to 17%+. Take it as a measure of progress, not as an absolute and be aware of subtle changes in context as they can cause large differences in measurments.


Hi Andy,

How do you share all this data with your clients? I mean, do you share a doc with a service like Google docs? or via email attachment ?

Sometimes I’ve to request some data from my clients, but I’m not shure what is the “best” way …

I hope that your experience can help me, thx in advance


Hi, I think I am at ~15% body fat at 149 lbs after being on a clean bulk for the last two months (gained 10 lbs over that time period) . I am not sure if I should cut to 10% body fat or clean bulk for another 10-15 lbs. What do you recommend to someone on what body fat they should cut to before starting to clean bulk.


So when bulkng for an intermediate or advanced lifter how would you go about tracking the changes in weight and making sure you’re gaining weight at the proper pace for whatever phase of your lifting career you’re in.


Hi Andy , just wanted to clarify with you about weekly tracking .
“Weigh yourself daily, first thing in the morning after going to the toilet. Note the average at the end of the tracking week”
So does this mean you take an average of weigh ins from Monday to Sunday . Or as I have been doing Monday to Monday , taking my Monday morning weight and calculating an average for last 8 days . Then using that average to start the week . Thanks

David Tedla
David Tedla


i am new to this site and am from germany. i have a question regarding meassuring body circumfance with myotape. while you said it is obligation to meassure exactly to 0,1 cm , i am not able to hit a exact number because of my belly extend while i am inhaling, so can you precisly describe how to meassure?



Hello Andrew! I am in the middle of a cut and i will be going through a surgery next week which won’t allow me train during recovery process(~2 weeks). What should i do in this scenario? I have already done a diet break 2 weeks ago, so i guess another break in diet wouldn’t be a good idea. Should i just eat my cut macros during the recovery weeks and just not workout?Am i risking muscle loss or something like that? Thanks 🙂

Chris Sanders
Chris Sanders

Hi Andy , my question is do you know how long it takes creatine to leave your body ? Im cutting and started creatine(HCL) to experiment . However I stopped after ten days as I appeared smoother and noticed my daily weigh ins climbing slightly , over all weight is trending down but at a lower rate than previous . Been off for 5 days but daily weight still climbing I realize probably water weight and have been having sleep issues latelely , Thanks

Chris Sanders
Chris Sanders

Thanks Andy , yes the creatine has caused weight gain while I’m cutting which in turn has confused me while tracking . So your suggestion is to accept the weight gain as water weight and continue to track just as you would normally ? Thanks


Hi Andy! Does the same formoula( weighing every morning & doing measurements every week) applies to someone who is not natural? Thanks


Andy, shouldn’t we measure around shoulders too? How could I know if my shoulders are still growing?

Martin Lindley
Martin Lindley

Hi Andy,

Question for you, if you don’t mind.
I’m currently on a cut, looking to get as lean as possible (10%BF). The problem is I haven’t been losing any scale weight for the last 4-6 weeks. On the flip side all my measurements are coming down & my lifts have been increased.

Question is should I reduce calories or stay as I am? I didn’t want to reduce calories too soon.


Hey Andy,

First I would like to say I love your program and thank you for sharing this knowledge with us. I’ve been following your program for 4 weeks now and I’ve lost 7 pounds and 3 inches off my waist, while being able to increase my lifts weekly! But for the last week, my weight has stayed the exact same as well my waist measurement. My diet has not changed, my sleep has not changed either so I’m confused as to what is going on right now. Can you Please help me?!


Hi Andy, is almost 5 weeks now that I’m following your protocols, my weight is essentially the same, while my measures are better (belly is 4cm less) should I lower my calories? what do you think?


Hi Andy! I have a few questions regarding the progress photos:

1) Are they done flexed or relaxed? I know you can take both, but I’m curious what is typically the most helpful.

2) If relaxed, what would you suggest to do to keep stomach flexion consistent? For instance, would you suggest exhaling and relaxing your stomach (not sucking it in or sticking it out)? Would you suggest tensing your abs to any degree?

3) For the side photos do you suggest arms at the side or sticking straight out?

4) Does any of this change depending on your body fat %? E.g. if you’re more muscular / bulking, would it make sense to flex so you can see more definition? Or is it harder to take consistent photos that way?



Did Andy ever answer this, particularly question 1 and 2?


Hi Andy – female here that has been practicing IF 16:8 for 7 months now. Just started my cut.

I eat from 11:30a-7:30p. I train at 4-5am each day and consume 10g of BCAA’s at 7am and then have coffee with a touch of creamer around 9am.

Am I getting the full benefits of fasting? Is training in the morning and not eating right away hindering my weight loss?

Thank you!


So if I decide to have coffee no creamer? But certain BCAA’s have calories. In the timing guide it says no calories but to consume 10g of BCAA’s. Please advise. Thank you!

Deonte Manning
Deonte Manning

Andy , I love your content . Always informative. Infact I have all 3 of your books .

I began my 2 weeks of eating at matinence using the calculations from the nutrition pyramid program . I have been within 95% adherence . I have lost 10 lbs in the first week and a half! Should I be concerned ? I should note that before I was eating fast food and junk food every meal before I started cooking and eating at the calculated maintenance calories .

With this big of a swing , should I continue experimenting with my main amount for another week so I can get more reliable data ?

Thanks .



I have purchased both your books and have found them to be very helpful. Do you have any articles or podcasts detailing how you found your way into the fitness industry? I’d love to know more of your background.



Hey Andy,

2 years after landing on your page I still find myself coming back from time to time. Quick question in regards to your site design. When I clicked into this page there was a “modal” that came up asking for my email address, once I clicked that I already had this information it slid away bringing me to the site. If you know, could you point me to that plugin? I’m looking for something like that on my own site and love the functionality and look of that.

Thanks for all you do and all the content that you put out. There’s not a site that I have found that compares.

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