12 Weeks: What You Can Expect to Achieve…

Andy Morgan日本語286 Comments

…Identifying Where You’re At Now, Setting Realistic Goals, and Your Best Course of Action.

12 Weeks, what you can expect to achieve

I think one of the toughest parts of coaching people is keeping people’s expectations in check. Lofty goals are important but they must be set in the correct time-frame. If you have unrealistic expectations it’ll quickly kill your motivation when the reality doesn’t pan out. For me though, setting realistic expectations is essential to maintaining a good reputation, cause I know I will be held accountable to the predictions that I initially make.

Aside from physique focussed recreational trainees I have been fortunate to work with a wide range of people – actors, models, bodybuilders military folk, and fighters – the kind of folks that can’t afford to mess about. They hire me because of my reputation, which I have built up by sticking very rigidly to my principles of not bullshitting people about what I think can be achieved in set time frame.


Intermittent Fasting is not a magic pill, just a particularly effective way of eating that will maximize hard work in the gym, and minimize kitchen time.

To know what a realistic goal is for yourself however you need to know where you are starting from.

Identifying Where You Are Now

There is a saying that,

“The quickest way to look like you have gained 10lbs of muscle is to lose 10lbs of fat.”

and I believe for many people this generally holds true*, however not for those that either have little muscle mass in the first place, or those that have a relatively high body-fat (+20%/+25% for men/women), in which case 10lbs will not be as noticeable.

*Particularly in the summer when everyone is wearing less and thus the new definition is clearly visible.

Acknowledging your current physical condition is the only way to set up realistic expectations and build towards your long-term goals. Be honest with yourself when reading below.

Body Categories

(To make it easier to explain)

Everyone reading this, no matter what their body shape or size is seeking improvement. I don’t see any particular classification as a negative. For sure, you may be a mix of a couple of the categories. We’re all big boys and girls able to handle real-word descriptions right? So I won’t soften things up by giving them politically correct names.

It’s better to read through all categories until you get to the one that describes yourself best as there are things I have not repeated yet are necessary to understand. Once you get to your part feel free to skip down to the last section titled “Finally.”

If there are things that you don’t understand, or more likely, you’re wondering about the macro set-up then don’t panic, I’ve included links at the end for you.

Take a good look, there’s an important lesson here. Click to be taken Leigh Peel’s excellent article on identifying body-fat percentages. The whole site is a gem, I encourage you to explore.

  1. Muscled, few pounds to lose.
  2. Skinny
  3. ‘Skinny-fat’
  4. “Muscled but Fat” vs. “Weak and Fat” 
  5. Obese
  6. Shredded (Clear, defined abs.)

Important Points to Understand:

  • Fat can be burned far quicker than muscle is gained.
  • Gains from strength training, even with excellent programming will become less and less as the years progress.
  • People new to serious strength training will experience the most gains in lean body-mass.
  • Strength gains/losses correlate well with muscle gains/losses.
  • Generally speaking, when cutting if you manage to maintain strength, you have preserved muscle mass.


1. Muscled, few pounds to lose.

Who? – Have a look at the guy above on the left. I’m referring to someone carrying slightly more body-fat or someone with the same low body-fat just wanting to get more ripped.

If you are in this category then you will see the quickest results from using Leangains. That is not to say that the actual fat loss rate will be quickest in this category, it won’t. But small losses in body fat or gains in muscle will be much more visible. It is at this point that the diet becomes really rewarding as results can be seen in the mirror almost weekly.

Action Plan:

Option 1, Body-recomposition Macros.

This may help you to spur on further growth/strength gains in the gym, while burning off the fat. This can happen even your calorie intake is unchanged because you will be putting the right foods into your mouth at the most optimal time. This is key.

Option 2, Cut.

The fat-loss rate will be higher here. Your goal is to maintain strength and thus muscle-mass while cutting off the fat. Do this by lifting hard and heavy. You’re probably not new to strength training but might need to cut back to a minimalistic split-routine 3 days a week during the cut. When you get to the desired level of lean you can re-introduce more calories and grow again. (See the “Ripped” category below.) If you choose this, put your lifting ambitions on hold for a while. Trying to go heavier when on a cut can lead to injuries.

Which option you choose will depend on where you derive the most satisfaction: visual results alone or strength increases also.

2. Skinny

Who? – Have a look at the guy above on the right.

Genetics, laziness, suffering ‘fuckarounditis’ with your training in the gym… whatever the reason it doesn’t matter, you are here now.

I genuinely think this is the most exciting group to be in because finally fixing your training (or starting) and getting your diet right will set you up for the best year of gains in muscle mass of your life.

Action Plan:

Carefully planned ‘slow-bulk’ macros to facilitate growth while keeping fat gain to a minimum. Your body will be hungry for energy due to the new training stimulus; do not starve it! 

I see kids not too dissimilar to the guy on the right thinking that cutting is the way to go to get abs. Wrong. Please look at the two pictures below of Christian Bale.

Christian Bale’s Body – American Psycho vs The Machinist

Though these pictures were taken years apart, Christian Bale is a man who enjoys working out and it’s fair to say he wasn’t in bad physical condition before he starved himself for his role in The Machinist. Clearly starving himself did nothing for his abs.

Hidden or not, unfortunately if you are in this category you don’t have a decent set of abs because you are weak and haven’t trained them by squatting [see page 3, paragraph 4].

Advice: Learn to relish the strength gains you get down the gym knowing that it means your body is changing too. In 12 weeks you’re not going to become batman, but you can set yourself on the right path your journey into fitness and by using the guide on this site to save you from making many of the training and diet mistakes that I did. Rome wasn’t built in a day.

3. “Skinny-fat”

Who? This refers to the skinny guy simply carrying more body fat. Weak*. This was me for many years.

*Use your common sense as to what this means. Struggle to do a full range chin-up? This is weak.

Action Plan:

Well-planned ‘body-recomposition’* macros to facilitate growth while burning body fat. *The exact set-up will be determined by the amount of body-fat you currently have, but trying body-recomp. macros and then tracking progress is a good start.

There is no point stripping off the body fat to reveal a very weak figure. As with the above your body will be hungry for energy due to the new training stimulus, so you must not starve it.

I think as with the ‘skinny’ group this is quite an exciting position to be in. However in terms of managing expectations this is the biggest problem group when working with clients.

People in this group generally underestimate how much of their ‘muscle’ is actually just fat. Please don’t think that big arm size means you’re muscled. Such thinking keeps many people fat as they can’t bear their biceps to become smaller. You can probably think of a couple of guys like this in your gym.

Given that fat burn happens more quickly than muscle growth you will lose weight and perhaps feel skinny, yet in reality be stronger and more muscled. Sometimes cutting can be a harsh reality-check.

Years of sitting on the couch can’t be fixed in a few months of barbell training, but you can get a good start. A long-term focus and attitude is necessary. But then given that your life is a long-term thing don’t use this as an excuse for inaction.

4. “Muscled, but Fat” vs. “Weak and Fat”

*not clients.

As I have stated before, fat can be stripped off more quickly than muscle can be put on. Given this, if in an instant we could remove all the fat obviously the stronger guy would be looking better.

If you are strong but carrying too much body fat you can focus on simply maintaining muscle mass with a simple ‘hard and heavy’ abbreviated training routine and go for a cut.

-> Tracking body-measurements and scale weight is key here.

If you are weak and fat then you are in a similar, exciting position as people in the “skinny” category in terms of muscle growth you can expect during your first year. Given that your body will be hungrier than the “muscled but fat” guy as it adapts to the new training stimulus you won’t be able to have as severe a cut as those guys can go with.

-> Track strength gains here too and remember that your muscle gains will hide some of the true fat-loss figure that the scales can’t show.

5. Obese

Obese people, due to the sheer weight of the extra poundage they have to carry around every day are going to have a more muscled frame than the skinny guy. Fat loss should be your goal. Lifting heavy will help you with this also. Obviously go for a cut.

If this is you then hats off to you for deciding to do something about it. Here, consistent weekly tracking of weight and body measurements, rather than the mirror, are essential to keep you motivated.

You can find a couple of interviews with guys that were obese but used Leangains to get lean by themselves here.

6. Shredded (Sub-10% body-fat)

The “Ripped” category gets a little complicated so unless this is you, feel free to skip it and come back to this article when you get there.

If you’re truly shredded you’re in the perfect position for muscle gains. (Note that these guys have been training for years. Sadaaki on the left for 9 years.)

Why? Being lean you will generally be more insulin sensitive. The more insulin sensitive you are, the more muscle you’ll be able to gain per pound of fat.

Action Plan:

Quite obviously you are going to want to do a bulk.

Option 1, Traditional Bulk.

If you just want to get big and strong and don’t care about the fat gain then you can’t go far wrong Rippetoe’s recommendation of drinking a gallon of fresh, full-fat milk every day in addition to your usual diet. He swears by this approach and I am not in any position to argue with the man’s experience here.

Option 2, Leangains-style Slow-Bulk

If you care about the fat gain and want to stay as lean as possible while gaining muscle then I’d highly recommend a Leangains style slow-bulk.

A typical set-up it would look like Training days +30%kCal Rest days -10%kCal.

Many people ask, “What the purpose is of the “under maintenance-calorie rest-days” when doing a slow-bulk?”

The answer is quite simple, you need to have enough of a calorie deficit on the rest-day to burn off the fat that you laid down on your excess calorie training-day. This happens both from dietary consumption and any conversion of the unused carbs to fat (de novo lipogenesis) over what the liver and muscles can store as glycogen.

Giving the body days where it has less energy coming in than it needs is one of the keys to the Leangains slow-bulk and it’s effectiveness for gaining muscle with minimal fat.

Theoretically in this way it is possible to not gain any fat while bulking. It does happen. What is more likely however is that you will gain a little fat too. In a few months you may find yourself in what I like to call a “one month out” physical state. That is to say that you will still probably have visible but ‘softer’ abs where one month of cutting will bring you back to ripped again (but hopefully more muscled). I feel this is a very small price to pay compared with the traditional bodybuilding bulk-cut systems which sometimes require 3-5 months of cutting to get ripped again after the bulk.

How long you can continue to gain muscle before getting to this point will depend on your skill and diligence in manipulating your macronutrient intake. Martin Berkhan actually wrote that he himself did a couple of cuts after his slow-bulk to his current shredded condition back in 2007 and 2008.

-> Track progress by working toward progressive poundage increases in the gym or body measurements. Remember, if your strength is going up then you’ve probably gained lean body mass.


Everyone is different, everyone’s results will be different. I.F./ Leangains isn’t for everyone, but it works for many people. At the minimum, if you’re used to the ‘many small meals’ method you’ll probably be feeling more focused and energetic in the mornings, won’t become sleepy mid-afternoon, and have much less kitchen stress.

This is part of a detailed guide I’ve written. I’ve tried to give you everything so that you can have success by yourself, so please give it a go and don’t think that you have to hire me.

The purpose of the english-language side of the site is primarily to help me get my thoughts together before translating into Japanese. I’m just really happy to see that people have been finding it useful, and the kind responses I’ve had. I’ll write more about the plan for Japan soon, and thank Martin for his support.

Thanks to the kind folks that made suggestions on what I should include here. I hope it wasn’t too painfully detailed. Further suggestions for improvement most welcome!

Useful Links:

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2. 'The Complete Guide To Setting Up Your Diet' book
3. Email course on the 5 biggest set-up mistakes people make.

(Yes, it's all free.)

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About the Author

Andy Morgan

I'm an online nutritional coach and trainer. After seeing one too many people get ripped off by supplement and training industry lies I decided to try and do something about it. The site you see here is the result of a lot of Starbucks-fuelled, two-fingered typing. It's had a lot of love poured into it, and I hope you find the guides to the diet and training methods I use on this site useful. When I'm not helping clients you'll likely find me crashing down a mountain on a snowboard, riding a motorbike, or staring at watches I can't afford.

286 Comments on “12 Weeks: What You Can Expect to Achieve…”

  1. John

    Hey Andy, after two weeks of dieting 300 to calories below maintanance, would you expect to see a drop in arm girth measurements, with no drop in anything else?

  2. abdi

    Hi Andy,

    in the most recent guide you dont seem to clarify what people should focus on bulking and what people should focus on cutting. there is also no mention of body recomposition macros. this has been strictly replaced with bulking or cutting. is there a reason why you abandoned body recomposition macros.

    i am 30 year old male weighing 78kg and with a height of 177cm. i fit the skinny fat category and a relative novice.

    i am currently doing the big 3 routine but confused as to what macros and method would be more ideal: a bulk or a cut?

    thanks alot for this amazing website.

    1. Andy Morgan

      Hi Abdi. Yes, it doesn’t tend to work well in a lot of situations. The skinny fat beginner who can strain hard and eat right being an exception generally. It’s complicated, hence the reason why I quit sending people to this article (my old thoughts) and why I wrote the new one in three parts.

  3. manvir

    hi andy,
    i want to get bigger but i also want my abs to show. right now if i flex slightly my upper abs show. but if i bulk using the leangains diet will i end up losing the visibility of my abs or can i bulk and still improve the definition of my abs ? what would be your recommendation ?
    i have read your guide which shows the different body types however im confused which category i fit into however i consider myself closest to being skinny. and the recommendation is to bulk but i dont want a belly and really want my abs to show even better or atleast remin how they are.
    also i it ok if i workout 4-5 days a week instead of the recommended 3 days while following the leangains technique?
    kindly help me out here
    thank you

  4. sid2hart

    Hi Andy, thanks for such a great site and super info. For the first time I’m forming a clear long-term in my head of what to do. I had a question re: the recomp process if your body type is skinny fat. At what point and how do you become aware that the recomp is no longer working and that you need to either do a bulk or a cut? Would this manifest itself as strength gains no longer happening and/or body weight not going down anymore?

  5. Pingback: Como Calcular Seus Macros no Sistema LeangainsDieta & Malhação

  6. Tony Tidwell

    Hello Andy,
    I went through the FAQ’s before asking this question but really didn’t see the detail I was looking for. I’m trying to get a little more insight into stress and when you feel that it starts to effect results. Obviously we all deal with stress differently and stress levels constantly change but how can a person tell when the stress reaches a level that’s going start hindering results? For example, if a highly stressful event(death of someone close, job loss, divorce etc,etc) occurs should a person stop working out and go to non workout day macros until the stress is reduced or??

    Thank you,

    Tony Tidwell

  7. Pingback: É Melhor Esquecer o Percentual de Gordura (BF)?Dieta & Malhação

  8. Rick

    Hi Andy,

    I have the “muscle but fat” thing going, but with the “fat but weak” belly (far right picture). I used to workout in my younger days but with injuries to my knees and working on oil and gas ships, I’ve gotten away from the gym and eating healthy. My body has a great memory and I build strength fast, but its power without stamina. I’m almost 40, so lifting heavy and packing on big muscle is not my goal anymore. Looking for the lean muscular type physique. Eating portions and counting calories are my weakness.

    1. Andy Morgan

      Hi Rick, thanks for the comment.
      Consider Brad Pilon’s “Eat. Stop. Eat.” method. Very simple, effective and no calorie counting involved. Weight train as per the site and work your way slowly into it. Walk each morning for 15 minutes to get yourself into good habits. Start cutting out 80% of the crap from your diet at the same time.

      That’s going to get you a long way, without the risks of drop out that complicating things any further at the moment will bring. Just come back then when you need to go a bit deeper to keep progressing.

  9. Deano Jones

    Where can i find a step by step Meal guide for intermittent fasting ? with recommended foods to eat ?
    My choice of meat would be Chicken, Steak or Pork Chops
    Fresh Vegetables like Asparagus, Green beans Carrots Cabbage
    Would you say this is a good choice
    Any other Recommendations that will help with the process
    This website is by far the best out there !!!!!!!

  10. Brian Lam

    Hi Andy, how do you keep track of progress on a body recomp? For example, what are some good indicators that your recomp is going well?

  11. Yifan

    Dear Andy,

    I am somewhat conflicted in if I should concentrate more on gaining muscle or losing fat (I feel weak, but also don’t like the fat I can grab on the stomach). I think I’m somewhat between categories listed here, so perhaps you could give your opinion based on my current stats: (lifts are reps for current top working set using RPT).

    5’10”, 158lbs, squat – 230lbs x 3, bench – 185lbs x 3, deadlift – 295lbs x 5.

    Thanks for you time.

    1. Andy Morgan

      Hi Yufan. I can present is the information to help you make a decision, but it’s a personal judgement you need to make. Look also at the results page for those around your height and their lifting stats.

  12. ML


    Quick question: I’m in the “muscled but fat” category. (5’7″, 225lbs, probably around 36% bodyfat. My max deadlift is 470lbs.) I’m obviously going to do a cut, and I’m eager to lean out as quickly as possible. I remember reading that fat guys can keep a deficit both rest days and training days, but what is the max deficit you would recommend?

    For instance, to lose 2lbs per week, it looks like I would have to do -50% on rest days and -30% on training days… but this seems like it might be excessive… then again, I am pretty fat… Could you suggest a rough max limit for how much one can cut on rest days and workout days without screwing up the diet? I want to lean out as quickly as possible – but I know more isn’t always better.

    By the way, this is an AMAZINGLY helpful website. Thank you!


  13. Matt

    Hey Andy,
    What kind of results can I expect in two years? Also do you think I should start a clean bulk or cut down a little more? I’m starting to look reaaaally small. I’m 18 years old, 5’11” and am now a very small 140 lbs at around 13% bf, I started to lose weight around december from 180 lbs at 26% bf and although I have lost 40lbs, at least 10 of those were muscle. I’m starting a clean bulk with a barbell training routine. I’ve tried weight training in the past but I never got the results I wanted because I was doing everything wrong, but now I’m following your instructions and I’m determined to stick with it!

    1. Andy Morgan

      “What kind of results can I expect in two years?”
      Clearly, there is a lot of scope for huge change Matt. How much you achieve really comes down to how well you plan things. Start here.

  14. Eduardo

    Hi Andy,
    Amazing site man, big fan of IF
    Got 1 question:
    I just finished a cutting phase, got great results, im finally ripped XD.
    How do i transition from that to a slow bulk phase without gaining fat (screwing up my results)?

  15. FA

    Hi Andy,
    Two questions about exercise physiology. Sorry if they’ve been asked and answered before:
    1) Does *reducing* the frequency of compound weight training at a caloric deficit actually increase the possibility of muscle catabolism? In other words, is the body more easily “fooled” into preserving muscle if it doesn’t have more than a two-day rest period?
    2) What are your thoughts on BCAA before or after yohimbine HCL. I am currently having my BCAA half an hour before taking the yohimbine and an hour before the workout, under the assumption that the insulin spike from the BCAA will have passed in half an hour. Is this the right way to go?
    Many thanks,

    1. Andy Morgan

      Hi Farid.
      Does *reducing* the frequency of compound weight training at a caloric deficit actually increase the possibility of muscle catabolism?
      1. Training is important for maintaining lean muscle mass. Training too infrequently when in a deficit and you will risk muscle catabolism. Training too frequently when in a deficit and you can risk failing to recover, which can have compounding effects on your workouts and strength training which can risk muscle catabolism.

      The balance can be a fine one if there is a lot of other factors involved that can screw with things (sleep, stress, other training commitments for a sport – applicable to athletes). For the average person though there is a fair amount of leeway. As a general rule, train enough to maintain your strength and you’ll be fine.
      2. I can’t see one affecting the other to any significant degree. Then again, I’ve used it so few times with clients (I can count on one hand) I can’t say that I have enough clear evidence either way.

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