A caloric deficit doesn’t have to come entirely from the diet, and you probably guessed that adding some cardiovascular work to expend more energy rather than restricting your energy intake alone, could also be useful.

A simple way to estimate energy expenditure during cardio requires you to determine a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. This can be simply done by considering how hard it feels on a scale from 1 to 10 (note, this is a different form of RPE from the repetitions in reserve based RPE scale discussed in the Training Pyramid).

If you also track the time spent performing the cardio, and if you know your bodyweight, you can estimate caloric expenditure with reasonable accuracy. You burn approximately ~0.2, ~0.45 and ~0.7 kcal per 10 minutes per pound of bodyweight doing light (RPE 2 to 4 out of 10), moderate (RPE 5 to 7 out of 10) and vigorous (RPE 8 to 10 out of 10) cardio respectively, above what you would normally be burning doing everyday light activity in that same time period 1.

How to Gauge the RPE of Cardio
RPE 1–2Very light effort. You can talk with ease.
RPE 3–4Light effort. You can talk with almost no difficulty.
RPE 5Moderately light effort. You can talk comfortably with minor difficulty.
RPE 6Moderate effort. You can talk with minor difficulty.
RPE 7Moderately high effort. Talking is difficult.
RPE 8High effort. Talking is very difficult.
RPE 9Very high effort. Talking is maximally difficult.
RPE 10Maximal effort. Talking is impossible.

Cardio type, height, weight, and other variables affect these values, but these are decent values to use for estimation purposes. So for example, a 200 lb male performing moderate intensity cardio would burn an additional 90 kcal in 10 minutes (0.45 x 200) over and above what they burn doing normal day-to-day light activity for the same time period. In an hour, they would burn 540 kcal over what they would have burned had they been performing light everyday activity.

Below is a chart displaying the number of calories burned during 10 minutes of cardio activity at 3 different levels of intensity for individuals at 3 different body weights:

Cardio: Estimated Rates of Calorie Burn

(Per 10 minutes)

Type of
(RPE 2–4)
24 kcal32 kcal40 kcal
(RPE 5–7)
64 kcal74 kcal90 kcal
(RPE 8–10)
84 kcal112 kcal140 kcal

Now if this hypothetical 200 lb (90 kg) male really enjoyed food he might think, “Hold on, if I did an hour of moderate intensity cardio a day, that would put me slightly over a 3500 kcal deficit per week and I would be able to lose a pound weekly which is at a rate of ~0.5%. That’s what you prescribe and I wouldn’t have to restrict my food!” Well, he wouldn’t be wrong, but 7 hours of moderate-intensity cardio per week can cause problems for someone interested in muscle and strength.

Why the Type of Cardio You Do Matters

Doing cardiovascular exercise at moderate intensities is essentially endurance training. The adaptations and the work required to produce endurance adaptations can interfere with the training and adaptations required to generate muscular strength, hypertrophy, and power 2. Not to say that interference will prevent someone from getting bigger, stronger, or more powerful, but if excessive cardio is performed it can slow down the process of building muscle, strength, or power in a dose-dependent manner.

The Interference Effect in Low-intensity vs. Moderate-intensity Cardio

Glycogen depletion and the molecular signaling that comes from endurance training may play a role in interference 3. Additionally, interference might also be related to the extent of the impact and the contribution of eccentric actions from the modality of cardio, considering that cycling appears to interfere less with resistance training adaptations than incline walking 4.

Eccentric actions are essentially when your muscle lengthens while it contracts, often performed when guiding a load into place or decelerating a load; like what your bicep is doing when you set down a coffee mug. In endurance training, this is how your body brakes and controls your inertia and movement. High impact forces can create joint strain, and a high volume of high force eccentric actions can create a lot of muscle soreness. So, you can deplete the muscle of its energy and also go into training with sore joints and muscles if cardio training is excessive.

However, low-intensity cardio (if it doesn’t have an impact component, like cycling, or the elliptical) would be below the threshold of producing overload and therefore wouldn’t be an issue. For someone in decent shape who is lifting weights, casual cardio is not an adaptive stress, so it won’t cause endurance adaptations in the body. Thus, interference is not an issue with low-intensity cardio. However, the calorie burn is much lower when doing low-intensity cardio compared to higher intensities, and thus, you have to do a lot of it for it to add up.

Why High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Should Be Used Sparingly

The final option is high-intensity cardio. High-intensity cardio is very taxing, and unlike lower-intensity cardio cannot be done continuously for very long unless you are a well-trained anaerobic athlete. This is one of the reasons you often hear people talk about high-intensity interval training or HIIT. HIIT is when you do a burst of maximal-intensity cardio, followed by a rest period and then repeat.

Similar metabolic adaptations can come from either HIIT or lower-intensity cardio performed for longer periods, but in less total time 5. Also, the risk of interference seems to be reduced when HIIT is utilized because the high-intensity nature of the cardio is more similar to resistance training 6. Lastly, the higher the intensity, the greater the increase in metabolic rate in the short time period afterward. High-intensity exercise provides a short-term, small, but significant increase in metabolic rate 7 while low-intensity does not.

So does that mean HIIT is a home run and that our 200 lb (90 kg) male who loves to eat can do a bunch of HIIT and some low-intensity cardio and keep all his food? Well, unfortunately, some of the same issues that come with moderate-intensity cardio come with high-intensity cardio.

If there is a significant eccentric component or a high level of impact, it can cause problems. In fact, sprinters suffer more than twice the number of hamstring injuries that long-distance runners suffer on average, despite running only a fraction of the distance or time 8.

While a larger risk of injury (with certain modalities) and a greater need for recovery are the only risks of HIIT, these are significant risks. It’s hard to make the argument that you are avoiding interference and retaining more muscle by avoiding moderate-intensity cardio and doing high-intensity cardio when you have a hamstring tear.

What Is the Appropriate Cardio Prescription?

Okay, so then what is appropriate for a cardio prescription?

Because of interference, cardio should not be the primary vehicle for fat loss, regardless of whether you perform low or high-intensity cardio. The majority of fat loss should come from the diet.

Secondly, resistance training performance is the most critical aspect of muscle maintenance. The diet supports the training as best as possible while creating fat loss and the training supports muscle retention. Don’t put this paradigm at risk. Remember you are a strength athlete or a bodybuilder, not an endurance athlete.

As a rule of thumb, your total cardio for the week should take no more than half the time you spend lifting weights. So if you spend 90 minutes 4 times per week lifting weights (6 hours), that means you should do no more than 3 total hours of cardio per week. As an aside, smaller women may find that they reach a point where food cannot be realistically further reduced to continue losing weight; in these cases, it may sometimes be needed to max out the amount of cardio performed or even to go slightly above this amount.

Choose cardio that is easy on the joints (low impact) and easy on the muscles in subsequent days (won’t make you sore). Rowing, cycling, swimming, elliptical trainers or even lightweight barbell or kettlebell complexes could all be used.

Cap the number of HIIT sessions at one to two sessions per week that last no more than 30 minutes. Do no more than an hour per week in total of moderate-intensity cardio as this intensity causes the most interference. For the rest of your cardio, keep it at a low intensity. Also, choose modalities you like. When the goal is just to expend calories the modality is not that important, why not enjoy it?

So what might this look like?

In the example of lifting 6 hours per week and doing 3 hours of cardio, you could perform two 30 minute HIIT sessions, 1 hour of moderate-intensity cardio, and 1 hour of low-intensity cardio as one way of doing the absolute maximum amount that should be performed.

The Muscle and Strength Pyramid: Nutrition v2.0

If you have found this helpful, you might be pleased to know it is just a small section taken from our Muscle and Strength Nutrition Pyramid book. The second edition, along with the Training companion book, was released this January 3rd, 2019.

Join 16,000+ other readers, get your copies here.

Thank you for reading. Questions welcomed in the comments.

– Eric, Andy, and Andrea

» Reference List

  1. Ainsworth, B.E., et al., Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1993. 25(1): p. 71–80.
  2. Wilson, J.M., et al., Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res, 2012. 26(8): p. 2293–307.
  3. Hawley, J.A., Molecular responses to strength and endurance training: are they incompatible? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2009. 34(3): p. 355–61.
  4. Gergley, J.C., Comparison of two lower-body modes of endurance training on lower- body strength development while concurrently training. JJ Strength Cond Res, 2009. 23(3): p. 979–87.
  5. Burgomaster, K.A., et al., Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. Journal of Physiology, 2008. 586(1): p. 151–60.
  6. Balabinis, C.P., et al., Early phase changes by concurrent endurance and strength training. J Strength Cond Res, 2003. 17(2): p. 393–401.
  7. Borsheim, E. and R. Bahr, Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Sports Med, 2003. 33(14): p. 1037–60.
  8. Lysholm, J. and J. Wiklander, Injuries in runners. Am J Sports Med, 1987. 15(2): p. 168–171.


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The literature often refers to getting 10000 *steps* per day. I know that’s likely because it’s easy to measure + has a very low barrier to entry.

I’m going to start cycling my gym commute (about 1hr walk, there & back) I know that the already small calorie expenditure will be reduced, but is there a health reason I should be trying to *walk* i.e. For health outcomes is walking “better” than cycling, ignoring calorie expenditure?

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Hi Laura.

No, it’s just an easy heuristic people use. The point is to help people be more conscious of their daily activity levels. When dieting, it often surprises people how much these numbers drop off without them realizing. (The reverse true when bulking, but usually to a lesser extent.) This is the NEAT change I refer to in articles across the site.

(Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for everything we do that is not sleeping, eating or sports-like exercise. It ranges from the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks and fidgeting.)

If you have an iPhone, click the Health app and then click on Steps. Zoom out the bar graph to a one-year period. You might notice a drop in the daily steps during any months you were dieting last year. (Unless you tried to diet via varying cardio.)


HI andy, is walking considered as cardio?

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Well, this depends on definitions. If you’re wondering whether to count your walk to work as cardio, that’s not the kind of thing we’re talking about here.

What is it you actually want to know?


Great article Eric, learnt something new today — interference — although my ultimate aim is physique and strength, at the moment, I am very much concerned with losing weight, so I am using diet to reduce that (while maintaining hight protein intake), and doing plenty of cardio combination to improve my physique and general health, about 4.5 hours per week.

At the same time, I need to improve strength and my aesthetic looks, so I am doing 4-5 hours resistance per week — basically I am at he gym 6 days per week.

I’ve been at at this several weeks now, and it’s demanding, especially with diet, since the cardio is taxing my limited energy intake. Any thoughts? Thanks again 🙂

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Hi OAL. Allow me to answer as it’s my site and Eric isn’t here to respond.

If something is demanding to the extent it’s unsustainable, reduce the workload. I’d reduce the gym days to four per week (see my advice regarding program selection here) and reduce the cardio by half at the least.

Tom Jenkins
Tom Jenkins

Hey Andy, I enjoy cycling but my focus is physique and strength. Ideally, I’d like to fit two or three rides into my week.

Is it better to ride on leg days (so my legs get 3 – 4 days of recovery away from both squats and hill cycling) or to ride on upper body days (so my squats aren’t compromised by a hard bike session a few hours earlier)?

Awesome site by the way.

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Thank you, Tom.

There is both a psychological component and a psychological component to this. Test out both and do what you find easiest.

Vasko Naumov
Vasko Naumov

Very useful article as always. Keep the perfect work Andy.

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Thank you, Vasko.

Arturo Murcia Dominguez
Arturo Murcia Dominguez

Hello Andy,

i undernstand that most fast loss should come from diet. This is clear crystaline to me . However, is there any benefit from doing a bit of cardio ( for example 40 min per week) isntead of eating 300 Kcal less thsi week?

Many thanks for all

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Hi Arturo. The result will be the same.



Would doing 30 minutes on the Recumbent Bike @ 130-140bpm 3x a week be classed as low intensity or moderate? if moderate how would I make it low?

Thank you.

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Use the RPE chart to help you gauge it.


So the conclusion of the article is to do different types of cardio (light,moderate,vigorous)? I will try something like that: 3-4 times lifting, 1 time light jogging, 1 time sprinting and 1 time jump roping per week.
Does running/sprinting or jump roping with rest intervals count as HIIT?

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

So the conclusion of the article is to do different types of cardio (light, moderate, vigorous)?
– No, see the bolded text for the conclusion. The end of the article is an example of someone that is at the point where they need to do cardio (or choose to so they can eat more).
Does running/sprinting or jump roping with rest intervals count as HIIT?
Yes, that is the definition of it. High-intensity, interval training.


Does any of this change when on maintaining or bulking calories? I want to start boxing in the new year and keep the same or even improve my body comp.

Looking forward to your reply. 🙂


Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Consider it the same. Thanks for asking, Elio.


What if you ARE a runner, as in you race. Obviously there’s going to be a give and take between the two goals (getting faster and getting bigger/stronger), but there should be a way to balance the two, no?

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

Sure, but this is an article about cardio for fat loss for people with physique and strength goals.

Nick Drizen
Nick Drizen

How does crossfit fit to into the above as that generally has heavy weights and intensity at the same time?

Andy Morgan
Andy Morgan

I’d imagine in the moderate range.

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