How To Set Up Your Diet: #3 Micronutrient Considerations & Water

Andy MorganKey Set-up, Nutritional Pyramid of Importance50 Comments

The Pyramid Of Nutrition Priorities - 3 Micros -

#1 Calorie Setting, #2 Macro Setting, #3 Micros & Water, #4 Nutrient Timing, #5 Supplements

The topic of micronutrition may sound boring but you can’t afford to ignore it. Long-term micronutrient deficiencies will impact your health and torpedo your training efforts.

Fortunately it’s doesn’t have to be complicated. By observing a few simple rules of thumb regarding your daily fruit and vegetable intake you can safeguard against deficiencies.

This article is less than a 5 minute read, but here are some key points for the super lazy:

  • A multivitamin isn’t a substitute for a poor diet, but it is additional insurance on a good one.
  • Dieters are at greater risk of micronutrient deficiencies and could benefit from supplementation.
  • It is likely that there are performance benefits from eating vegetables – Popeye was onto something with that spinach habit.
  • If you have issues with energy, feel hungry, wonder why your skin is pale, or have messed up sleep patterns, it could be that you’re short of a few vitamins or minerals.
  • Water is important for fat loss and performance. Aim for 5 clear urinations a day.

All the above I’ll explain in this article. I’ve tried to keep it short, relevant and practical.

What Are Micronutrients?

Vitamins and minerals.

Micronutient heart‘Micro’ because of the quantities: While macronutrients are generally counted in grams, micronutrients are generally counted in milligrams (or less). Think of macros as being the gas in your car, giving it the energy to propel the engine; micros as the oil and lubricants, keeping the car from breaking down.

Minerals are non-organic. Some of these (calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, etc.) are needed in greater quantities than others (iron, copper, zinc, etc.). Not coincidentally, things containing the former group (dairy & salty foods for example) taste good to us, and things containing a lot of the latter don’t. Bear with me here…

Vitamins are organic. Some are water-soluble and others are fat-soluble. The fat-soluble ones are absorbed in the gut, so deficiencies or surpluses (overdoses) build over time. The water-soluble ones are very hard to overdose on because they will be passed through the body in your urine (which is why you probably haven’t heard of people getting sick from super-dosing vitamin C when they catch a cold). The flip side of this is that they need to be consumed daily.

Further reading: See the video at the bottom of this post, or wade through the micronutrient page on Wikipedia.

The Right Mindset

1. Take sensible precautions rather than go looking for issues

Some people are very quick to point the finger of blame at their diet whenever issues pop up. If someone comes to me lacking energy for example, though it could be a micronutrient deficiency, if they are currently dieting then usually just the fact that they are in a calorie deficit and have been going at it too hard, or for too long without a break.

Very often it’s completely non-related to the diet – they haven’t been sleeping well, there is significant stress at work or home, or they’ve caught a cold but haven’t started sneezing yet.

Micronutition MindsetIf you have the time, economic means, and desire to go out and get a blood test to check, then by all means do so. However, I suggest that rather than assuming you have a problem and getting a blood test to check for a deficiency, assume you don’t and take the reasonable dietary precautions by following the guidelines I have below. Then if you have issues later on that you think may pertain to the diet (as you’ve ruled out other things) then perhaps consider getting one. I’m going to assume here though that the majority of us don’t and won’t, hence the guidelines below.

(Just remember that the industry profits from our desire to feel special by inventing issues for us to imagine we have and then selling solutions to these invented problems. – Those selling the idea of blood tests are also often those with a set of pills to sell.)

2. ‘If It Fits Your Macros’ (IIFYM) – Use it, but don’t abuse it.

On working with competitors, commenting on their habits mid-diet cycle, this is worth quoting from Eric Helms:

“‘If it fits your macros’ (IIFYM) has become, ‘What can I fit into these macros and get away with?’ i.e. ‘What can I fit into these macros to satisfy my cravings?’ rather than ‘How do I meet my nutritional needs?’ When you combine that with extreme hunger and dieting you can run into some issues. People can end up having some pretty ridiculous menus to meet some very well set up macros, that can actually lead you running into problems micronutritionally. 

I like flexible dieting, I love IIFYM, but there are some things that we want to think about so that we don’t run into issues with this so that it doesn’t end up short-circuiting our progress.”

Eric advises his competitors to think about a diet of inclusion rather than one of exclusion. An IIFYM diet abused with too many Pop-Tarts can be just as micronutritionally deficient as the ‘typical’ chicken and broccoli bodybuilder diet that excludes entire food groups.

Fruit and Fibrous Veg Intake Guidelines – To Cover Your Bases

The vast majority of people reading this, the physique focused people, will be fine for the micronutrients we get in meat, dairy and starchy carbs. It’s generally the ones from fruit and veg that we need to pay attention to, as they are the foods most often skipped for ease. With clients I usually use these guidelines:

  • Eat one or two pieces of fruit a day.
  • Eat fibrous veg with every meal.
  • Try and eat a variety of fruits and veg rather than the same things every day.

Then, if there are issues we may look at total fibre intake [see FAQ guidelines] or suggest a multi and then see how they respond. This is the simplest way of looking at your micronutrition.

That said, I also like the simplicity of the following guidelines given by Eric to his competitors as it satisfies a deep need for some people to have specific guidelines on quantities:

Fruit and Veg Intake Guidelines Based on Calorie Intake

The above uses the US cup food measurement system. (Which for the British, is what you can fit in a baby pint glass. For the rest of the world it’s a tiny bit more than what you can fit in a 250ml glass.) To those like myself that feel this is still a little vague, here is a quick guide:

Vegetable and Fruit cup measurement guideFeel free to share this but please leave the watermark on there.

As you can see they are based on daily calorie intake, with recommended intake tapering down the less that is eaten. Two main reasons:

  • The less your overall food intake, the less fruit and veg you’ll be able to fit into your macros.
  • The more you eat, the more fibre you’ll need to digest it and pass it through.

Now, I can appreciate that the reaction of the under 30 male crowd is going to be, “So, what’s the least I can get away with eating then?” to which I don’t have an answer for you. But I hope the two following quick sections will help.

Other Important Notes On Micronutrition

A Multivitamin is Not a Substitute for Fruit and Vegetable Intake


Up until my mid-twenties I considered them a pain in the arse to cook and expensive to buy. My tastes in food have changed and I quite enjoy vegetables now, but back then I believed there was an option of taking a pill instead. As for why not, this deserves a direct quote from Alan Aragon:

“It can’t be over-emphasized that a poor diet with a multi is still a poor diet. There are a multitude of biologically active and beneficial compounds within the matrix of foods that are not in – and may never make their way into – a multivitamin/mineral supplement.

It’s important to think of micronutrition not just in terms of essential vitamins & minerals, but also in terms of phytonutrients & zoonutrients; compounds that are not classified as vitamins or minerals but can optimize health and prevent disease. This is why attaining a variety of foods both within and across the food groups is important for covering all the micronutrient bases.”

Dieters Are At Greater Risk of Micronutrient Deficiencies

Those dieting (i.e. in a calorie deficit) are at greater risk of having some kind of micronutritional deficiency. The December 2013 editorial in Alan Aragon’s Research Review, ‘A critique of the recent multivitamin rant in the Annals of Internal Medicine,’ was a real eye opener in terms of how much this is so.

Dieters and Micronutrient DeficienciesRecalling the findings of Calton, JB. ‘Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans.’ from the June 2010 Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, regarding specifically the Atkins, DASH, South Beach, and Best Life diets:

  • All four diet plans failed to deliver 100% sufficiency for the selected 27 essential micronutrients, based on RDI guidelines, when followed as recommended by their suggested daily menus using whole food alone.
  • Six micronutrients (vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine, and molybdenum) were identified as consistently low or nonexistent in all four diet plans.
  • A typical dieter on any of these four popular diet plans would be, on average, 56.48% deficient in obtaining RDI sufficiency, and lacking in 15 out of the 27 essential micronutrients analyzed.
  • Thus, it is pretty clearly that when dieting it is especially likely that you will have some kind of micronutritional deficiency. (It also means I need to start going over the back issues of the JISSN). The advice then is to consider covering your bases with a multivitamin & mineral supplement.

We’ll go more in-depth on this in part #5 Supplements.

It Appears That There Are Performance Benefits To Be Had From Eating Vegetables

Green vegetables (spinach, rocket, and beetroot in particular) have a lot of nitrate. An increase in nitrate intake can reduces the cost of exercise and improves exercise tolerance. – Yes, Popeye was onto something with eating all that spinach, and your mum was right in telling you to eat your vegetables.

The science: If we have sufficient nitrate in our diets, then we are able to elevate our plasma nitrite concentration, and that nitrite that’s elevated can become nitric oxide, which may be beneficial to enabling the appropriate amount of oxygen to be supplied to muscle tissue.

If your VO2 max and your lactate threshold is the same, then a lower oxygen cost for the same running speed will mean you’re operating at a lower percentage of your VO2 max, meaning you’ll fatigue less rapidly as you’ll accumulate less of the things that we think cause us to slow down. Lower oxygen cost, higher muscle efficiency is an important aspect of performance across the board.

For more on this topic, check out the Guru Performance Podcast, episode 54.

The Limits of My Knowledge – Further Reading

Micronutrition is not my area of expertise. What I know was read in very boring few textbook chapters a long while ago and was brought to life in the video below by Eric Helms. He’s done a killer job and so that’s why you’ll find that this article in particular follows his work a lot more closely than the other articles in this series.

Water Intake Guidelines

Water is important for fat loss and performance. A few details on the fat loss part in the FAQ.

  • Aim for 5 clear urinations a day. – Lyle McDonald
  • Aim to be pissing clear by noon. – Me, though I’m sure I stole this from somewhere. Also,
  • Make sure that you’re not dehydrated at the time of your workouts or they will be negatively impacted.

I don’t like the idea of setting water intake for people based on bodyweight, simply because some people sweat more than others, not to mention different climates and activity levels.


To maximise your gains from training you need to consider when you’re eating relative to when you train. We’ll cover that with detailed example set-ups next.

Prefer to keep with the web version? #4 Meal Timing & Frequency, Calorie & Macro Cycling →

Questions welcomed in the comments, but if you have specific questions or concerns on micronutrition then it’s best to see a doctor or your local registered dietician. – Andy.

About the Author

Andy Morgan

I am the founder of, this is my sincere effort to build the best nutrition and training guides on the internet. Some readers hire me to coach them, which I've been doing online, via email, for the last six years. If you're interested in individualized, one-on-one nutrition and training coaching to help you crush your physique goals, let's start the conversation.

50 Comments on “How To Set Up Your Diet: #3 Micronutrient Considerations & Water”

  1. Andy,

    For the fruit and vegetable servings, should those be counted into my target calorie count for the day? Or would they be on top of my calories for the day and just go uncounted?

  2. Hi Andy,

    First want to congrulate you on your amazing site, i have been looking for ways(cheats to an extent), in my pursuit for fitness/nutrition and think this website is both informative and brilliant.

    I currently do the 5:2 diet, and i feel it works for me. I do however, love the idea of more analytical control/trend spotting.

    Question that i have, should i be aiming for higher numbers of macro’s on non fast days to offset the deficit.

    Do you feel the diet makes it harder to achieve long term goals, please let me know your thoughts.

    1. Hi Stefan, thanks for the question.
      Should i be aiming for higher numbers of macro’s on non fast days to offset the deficit.
      – The weekly calorie balance needs to be maintained, so if you’re going low on two days, you will need to compensate. Whether that will be harder or easier to adhere to really comes down to you individually Stefan.

  3. Hi Andy.

    2 questions for this section (i am on a cut, novice trainee):

    1. I’m not taking multi-vitamins, because i am trying to get all i need from real food. But the more i read, the more it seems like a good idea (to cover my bases). If i do take a multi, does this count to calories/macros? if so, how do you go about calculating it?

    2. I am trying my best to pee clear by lunch, and pee clear 5 times a day. But with my job, sometimes i have meetings, or business trips that make this almost impossible. When i am unable to do this, is the price i am paying enough for me to consider carrying a bottle with me everywhere i go?

    Thanks in advance

    1. Hi Toby, thanks for the questions.
      1. See section 5. No calories in a multivitamin.
      2. Don’t stress it. It’s a guideline, not a rule. Adherence is the primary concern, don’t follow anything in this series at the cost of being able to adhere consistently.

      1. Hi Andy.

        So i should do it when i can, but not to stress when i cant?


        I should avoid doing it at all if i cant do it consistently?

  4. Hi Andy, I have 26% fat and my weight is 75 kg . i am very lean looking with fat accumulated in belly. I have very small muscles. Should i focus on loosing fat first or gaining muscles first as both are imp requrements for my body. Can I do like bulk for 3 months than cut for 1 month or something ?

  5. Andy, I’ve generally met my carb requirements with starchy carbs (potato, rice, wheat), but what would be the micronutrient impact of substituting bananas and other fruit for all of those? Would there be other positive or negative impacts? Part of the motivation is that starchy carbs make me very gassy…. 🙁 but I don’t want to end up nutrient deficient. Thanks!

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  9. Echoing Thiru’s comment: Andy, this might be my favorite online nutrition and training coaching I’ve found thus far. Your articles are succint, effective, easy to read, and your use of the nutritional hierarchy has cleared away 100% of the bullshit I’ve been spinning my wheels with for so long. Thank you for developing this. I’m really enjoying it.

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  15. I can’t help but think that juicing would be the perfect way to get loads of foodsourced micronutrients while still not over doing the carbs. Ever looked into this?

    1. Hi Adam.
      You still get the carbs, just miss out on the fibre, which isn’t a great use of your carb budget when dieting for reasons of satiety.

  16. Hey Andy! i did carb back-loading year and half ago and completely eliminated fruits and dairy from my diet. i heard or read somewhere during cbl that fructose and dairy is bad and makes you fat. And result of avoiding fruits and dairy is that i have got calcium deficiency, cant get uninterrupted sleep, have to wake up couple of times during night, getting bald and my hair have become so thin from top. i always take multivitamin with food but it doesn’t seem to be working. I have introduced fruits and dairy again in my diet. cottage cheese and berries for dinner is a staple and have started taking magnesium tablets for sleep. Sleep has become better but not perfect. Cant find any solution for hair regrowth so far. i eat bananas, apples,grapes and oranges couple of times/ week. Hope you could help me with my micro nutrient deficiency

    1. Hi Chiranjeev.
      What you have read is complete nonsense. Sorry to hear that it had such affects. You probably just need to give it time for your hair to come back, however I’m not knowledgable on this kind of thing. If anything sounds too good to be true, it is. From the opening paragraphs of the fourth article on timing in this series:

      It appeals to us that something as simple as changing the timing of things can have a potent effect. People go mad for any short cut to actually putting in some effort and marketeers take advantage of this (flash a little bit of science while conveniently not talking about the bigger picture) to sell us on something new. Any time someone presents you the nutritional importance pyramid upside-down your BS detector should go off.

      The truth: Getting the timing of things right most certainly has favourable effects on body composition, however, if you gloss over the most impactful, foundation levels of your nutrition plan (calorie intake, the macro composition, and the micronutrition) you are wasting your time, money and effort.

      1. True! i just improved my diet and giving some time to myself to see some hair regrowth before i go see a doctor. Thanks for the quick reply Andy, You’re one of those people who actually help others and don’t run after money. #MAD RESPECT

  17. Andy,

    Due to update you on Sunday for our first four weeks working together. I have some concerns regarding fibre – I’m eating two pieces of fruit a day along with (and this isn’t a joke) 3-400g brocolli, quarter of an iceberg lettuce, a considerable chunk of cucumber, a pepper – sometimes 2, I throw in spinach and cabbage on occasion as well (this is all PER meal!). I’m finding I’m quite badly ‘backed up’ and struggle with loo breaks. I’ve thrown in a fiber supplement from Holland & Barret which seems to be helping. But for the love of GOD…how much fiber must I need?!

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    1. Hi Andre. “Decent” is subjective, and so I’m not going to venture there. I think you should cut. I’d peg you at around 20%. LT strategy, cut, slow-bulk, cut. Good luck!

      1. How do u think I would look? My plan is to get to 10% bf and slow bulk just as u suggested.

        1. Andre, you asked my advice, I’ve given it. Now you’re asking subjective questions that have no point to them. As wonderful as the internet is for getting information, it can also send you in circles if you let it. Stop messing around and get on with it.

  20. Awesome read, Can’t wait for the next one.

    Quick question about IIFYM. How does sugar fit into all this Andy?

    I noticed the average male should have around 40g a day, but when I check mine it’s at 164 due to a couple of processed foods that fit my macros.

    Your thoughts?


  21. Hey Andy, any harm of doubling up on Vege servings? Say I’m a 2000cal eater but eat vege 4 cups of Vege instead of 2?

    I feel one shouldn’t overdo on the fruits as one can get in trouble overdosing on all the consumed sugars – fact/fiction?

    1. Hi Andy. Fruit ‘overdosing’ (?), aka fructose alarmism is bad science at best. It comes from the fact that there is only so much fructose that can be processed in the liver each day and… blah blah blah. It’s completely irrelevant in real world applications. Eat however much fruit you want.

      As for the veg, I’d refer you back up the order of priority.
      1. Does the extra veg fit your calories? Yes/no. If yes,
      2. Does the extra veg fit your macros? Yes/no. If yes,
      3. Does the extra veg fit your recommended maximum fibre intake? Yes/no. If no,
      4. Do you get any of the negatives of a high fibre diet (listed in #2 Macros & Fibre)? Yes/no.
      If yes then reduce intake. If no then enjoy that extra veg.

      Make sense?

      1. Hmm.. Food for thought 🙂

        Ok – from a fruit perspective I understand to an extent. I’ll elaborate at the end.

        I’m going to have to digest (can’t help the puns) the info on the Veges. I went back to the simplified guides and maybe took this too literally “Green vegetables don’t have any carbs. – Eat plenty to slow digestion.” as meaning “Eat however much you want”.

        Now when it comes to fruit and Veges I’m sure this applies “Does the extra consumption fit your calories and macros” – correct?

  22. Thanks so much for this series of articles Andy…reading all 3 of them is really giving me a broader and greater understanding into nutrition which I think is invaluable.

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